editing disabled
CRIN604

1-27-10
  • I will need to read one additional book for this class. I will read:
Picture Perfect
The Art and Artifice of Public Image Making by Kidu Adato
1993 by BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
  • Between now and March 3 set up my avatar in Second Life
  • Post at least once a week by Sunday
  • Respond to at least one person's blog by Wednesday

On each blog page, there's a term "uncategorized". Clicking this shows all your entries.
You can create categories for your blogs. When you do an entry, if you don't categorize it, it automatically goes into the uncategorized group.

  • This week set up categories for my blog entries.
  • This week read Assorted Stuff under top 50 edublogs in Diigo.
  • This week personally bookmark Horizon report on this site so I can highlight.
  • This week blog about the first chapter of the book we have been assigned to read.

Webspiration -- a graphic organizer tool that's free right now

Notes on Chapter 1 of Teachers and Machines

Turn of the 20th century -- Characteristics of Education
  • Report cards, homework, textbooks, teacher lecture, student recitation
  • Learning was regimented, mechanical, and mindless
  • Teachers told students when they should sit, when they should stand, where they should hang their coats, when they should turn their heads
  • Passive, routine, clerical method of instructing

Challenge of Progressivism
  • Base instruction on student interests
  • Provide activities that have intellectual and social outcomes
  • Teacher as coach and adviser
  • Quest for efficiency

Use of Film
  • Became popular during the 1920s
  • Associated with the progressive movement

Reasons Films Weren't Widely Used
  • Teachers lack of skill in using equipment and film
  • Cost of films, equipment, upkeep
  • Inaccessibility of equipment when it was needed
  • Finding and fitting the right film to the class

Radio in the Classroom
  • Began to be used in schools during the 1920s

Reasons Radio Wasn't Widely Used
  • Equipment problems
  • Scheduling problems
  • Lack of information
  • Reception difficulties
  • Incompatibility with curriculum
  • Trade-off of instructional time not worth it
  • Teacher disinterest
  • Slowness of educational institution to embrace new technology

Notes on Digital Nation
Studies of multi-taskers -- Stanford and NASA
Young people spend 50 hours per week with digital media
Dr. Small at UCLA has done a study of brains of students using the internet -- more of brain is engaged when Google-ing vs. reading a book. At first, researchers thought that it was better for more of the brain to be engaged.
Technologies are changing so rapidly, studies are difficult to conduct
S. Korea's digital life is dominated by internet cafes where young people play video games non-stop
S Korea treats internet gaming as an addition -- an emotional disorder
S Korea was one of the first countries to embrace the digital revolution -- and one of the first to have to deal with the fallout
Internet Rescue Schools have emerged -- established by the government -- where students capture their childhoods
Cyberia -- a book written by Doug Rushkoff (1995)
The net has changed from a thing one does, to a way one lives
Young children begin to go on-line about the time they begin to read
Beginning in 2nd grade, students are taught how to use the computer responsibly
Internet ethics, manners, and then the technical information

Kids who grew up in this world are natives -- I'm an immigrant

American Schools
Jobs don't require us to stay in our seats and remain silent -- that's the way schools have taught -- won't work now
We must make schools make more sense by providing them with technology
Teacher created Nings for students to use to study To Kill a Mockingbird
Discipline problems down, attendance up, grades up
Use of technology reinforces short attention spans, instant gratification

At some point, does the increased use of technology get to the point of diminishing returns?
The Dumbest Generation (Dr. Bierline of Emory) says that digital distractions have made students less well educated

MIT students confirmed that interruptions have an impact on their writing -- can only write in paragraphs; can't put paragraphs together

Learning should remain the same, but the ways of learning may need to change (example of oral poems being replaced by books)

Gaming conventions -- in the US gamers seem to enjoy the human connections/develop relationships with gamers they play with;
some even meet romantic partners

Second Life (created by Phillip Rosedale) -- a 3D virtual world -- wanted to rewrite the rules of interactions for human beings -- people are more thoughtful in Second LIfe, find it important to be connected with others. Technology first separated us from one another; newer technology is re-connecting us -- or do they use the new technology to keep being alone less lonely? Enables us to work from home, but not feel isolated. Voices are live and real; just the visual is second life

Showed and IBM office building built for the industrial age that is empty. Everyone working there is not physically there -- they are all over the world. The meet in Second Life when they need to communicate.

Experiment with Stanford student using virtual reality helmet -- when avatars use their real faces it gets even more meaningful
Most stunning experiment involved children -- swimming with the whales -- when kids have a virtual reality experience, half of them later think the experience was real

US military is using virtual reality to treat soldiers returning from war with post-traumatic stress disorder (NY VA)

Singer Wired for War

Showed pilots flying drones over the Middle East -- strike with precision with no cost to American lives

Philadelphia Army Experience Center (replaced five recruiting stations) -- Kids play on XBoxes and Playstations -- also life-size helicopters and humvees kids can play on

Quest to Learn -- school that is built around gaming (NYC)

Technology challenges our values, so we have to figure out what our values are

frontline@pbs.org


Notes from 2-3-10 Class

Looked at trackstarforteachers.org/ a way for kids to organize resources on the web -- teacher sets it up and kids can only go to the sites the teacher selected -- teacher identifies web sites, develops scavenger hunt question, kids go to sites to answer questions

Looked at Filimentality, a website that allows teachers to set up treaser hunts, webquests, samplers, scrapbooks, hotlists. It also allows you to search for webquests that others have already created.

These links can be found on the class information for Feb. 3.

United streaming is a video streaming site found in most school divisions -- it's a video library; research exists on this technology. We looked at two studies (links in teacher's notes) of use of video streaming and its impact on learning.

As I begin to decide on the technology I want to use in my project, I need to see what the research says about the technology I'm considering. ISTE is a good place to go to check for research. the CARET (Center for Applied Research in Educational Technology) site in another place to look for research. AERA's journal did an article on instructional technology.

Then we looked at the PBS Teacherline site -- that might be a good one for us to use in selecting our technology

Next we looked at Internet Archive website. There's a link there for waybackmachine, a place where you can find articles that have disappeared from the web.

Looked at sites students can use for projects -- discussed constraints, positive points

vsteonline.ning.com -- set up an account, set up my page, explore the site, friend Karen and everyone else in the class

ning.com is the big site that offers the service of providing ning

It can be set up as public or private

Karen showed us one of her bundled pages on google.com goole reader. I have to go to Karen's Horizon RSS bundle, subscribe to the bundle and they'll all come to me (she did this under the share button)

For next week, read Chapter 2, fiddle with ning, set up a twitter account.

Notes on Chapter 2 of Teachers and Machines
The Use of Instructional Television 1954-1983
1954-1971 -- $100 million spent on educational television by the government and private foundations
Three types of use
1. The television provides instruction; the teacher supervises -- sample given was Samoa
2. The teacher does prep for lesson, the television provides lesson, the teacher provides follow-up -- sample given was Hagerstown
3. The teacher uses television to supplement selected instruction

Impact of ETV on the Classroom Teacher
ETV was thrust upon teachers
Teachers had no part in the design/planning of ETV

Level of Teacher Use
From 1970-81 teachers reported using ETV 2-4% of the time; the lower the grade level, the greater the usage
Results of several studies showed that
1. ETV occupies only a tiny niche in the school day; teachers use it as an accessory to rather than the primary vehicle for instruction
2. Only a few teachers use ETV willingly, consistently, and with enthusiasm
3. Use of ETV is substantially greater at the elementary school level
4. ETV is used more frequently in the afternoon than in the morning

Notes on Chapter 3: Explaining Teacher Uses of Machines in Classrooms
Educational Reformers' Suggestions of Reasons Teachers Avoid Technology Innovations
  • Indifference to the march of modern technology
  • Bureaucracies that stifle innovation
  • Inadequacies of the technology itself

This Author's Suggestions of Reasons Teachers Avoid Technology Innovations
  • Accessibility of Hardware and Software
    • Inadequate or obsolete equipment
    • Limited availability of an adequate signal
    • Awkward scheduling of broadcasts
    • Amateurish programs
    • Availability of equipment
    • Scheduling difficulties

  • Implementation of the Innovation
    • Top-down mandates/vs shared decision-making
    • Tokenism encouraged or sanctioned by principals

  • The Classroom and School as Work Settings
    • Organization of physical space
    • Structure of school day schedule
    • Demands on the teacher in terms of curriculum and student load
    • Traditional materials are more versatile, simple, portable, and efficient than machines

  • The Nature of the Teaching Profession
    • Schools acculturate new teachers because new teachers are products of the conservative, traditional schools they attended as students
    • Little emphasis on technology in college teacher prep programs
    • Student teachers may work for teachers who don't use technology
    • Few veteran teachers who mentor new teachers use technology
    • Emphasis teachers place on holistic learning rather than specific competencies
    • Emphasis teachers place on rapport with students
    • Perception that technology is for entertainment
    • Teacher reluctance to give up being "center stage"

Author's Synthesis of Teachers' Use of Machines
  • Continuity, rather than change, characterize the teaching profession
  • Elementary teachers are more willing to change than secondary teachers because elementary teachers have more flexibility in pedagogy and use of instructional time. Classroom and school organizational structure limit secondary teachers' ability to embrace change
  • The changes in teaching practices that have been embraced by teachers are those that
    • solved problems teachers faced
    • buttressed teachers' authority/control of the class
  • Teachers measure the worth of technology by asking
    • Is it simple?
    • Is it versatile?
    • Is it reliable?
    • Is it durable?
    • Is it worth the trouble?
    • Will it solve a problem I have?

  • Characteristics of teachers who embrace technology
    • They believe technology enhances the use of textbooks and worksheets
    • Use of technology give teachers a break from primary instruction, increase students' attention and motivation -- particularly at the elementary level


Notes on Chapter 4: Promise of the Computer

Four Questions To Consider --
1. What is the nature of the innovation?
Pros -- The computer promotes drill, problem-solving, motivation, interaction to a much greater extent than any previous
technologies
Cons -- Hardware and software issues, costs

2. How is the innovation being introduced?
  • Pressure for schools to use computers first came from corporate world, parents, government
  • Some teachers began to push for the use of computers in schools
  • Many administrators placed a token number of computer in their school libraries (primarily for gifted students) to keep
parents/supervisors off their backs
  • Studies still focus on numbers of computers, not meaningful use of computers

3. Who are the users, and how much are the machines used?
  • Teachers and administrators use computers most frequently -- but for clerical purposes
  • Elementary students use computers mostly for drill and writing
  • Secondary schools teach computer programming classes in labs
  • Secondary math and science teachers use computers more extensively than other subject-area teachers
  • By the late eighties, elementary students used computers 1.5 hours per week; secondary students used computers 3
hours per week
  • Many of the same problems that plagued implementation of earlier innovations are plaguing the use of computers for instruction purposes
  • It will take adoption of a fundamentally different approach to the teaching/learning process for computers to be used effectively in schools

4. Should computers be used in schools?
Perhaps we should ask this question before we ask the "how" question. In doing so we should consider the following:
  • Cost effectiveness of of computers used in instruction -- are we sure we can get the most bang for our buck from computers rather than other methods of learning?
  • Increased mechanization of teaching -- are children well-served by becoming more detached from others as they learn?
  • Impact upon children -- Are computers the best way to teach?

Curriculum 21:Essential Education for a Changing World edited by Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Chapter 1: A New Essential Curriculum for a New Time
When students today walk into schools they step back in time to the 1980s; when they walk out of school each day they return to the 21st century
Referenced Wiggins/McTighe's emphasis on backward design -- deciding first what you want outcomes to be (what students will know and be able to do) and then designing curriculum to match desired outcomes
Today's teachers are restricted by what they know and know how to do -- that needs to change
Preparation for the future requires teaching students how to use their minds well, not testing them reductively
This requires design of 21st century curriculum
Right now we operate as fifty separate countries (states), not one country with one set of standards

What some states are doing:
New Jersey has established the following goals:
1) address global perspectives
2) employ 21st century digital and networking tools
3) identify salient interdisciplinary linkages for real-worl applications

Rhode Island is requiring that all graduating students have digital portfolios of self-selected work that matches state standards

The Hawaii state department of education has had a common internet-based program with the proper infrstructure for communication for many years. Its purpose has been to provide video-based professional development and video-conferencing capabilities.

Jacobs offers a growth model to improve curriculum
She identifies four key structures that affect curriculum
1. The schedule
2. Grouping patterns
3. Personnel configurations
4. Use of space

These structures can hinder or support curriculum implementation. For curriculum to change these structures must change. Form should follow function.

Myths That Shape Operational Visions of School (and are obstacles to change)
#1. The good old days are still good enough
#2. We're better off if we all think alike -- and not too much
#3. Too much creativity is dangerous -- and the arts are frills


Curriculum 21:Essential Education for a Changing World edited by Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Chapter 2: Upgrading the Curriculum: 21st Century Assessment Types and Skills

NOTES
Curriculum Mapping Software as the Vehicle
  • The way to modernize instruction is to replace existing curriculum practices
  • Use curriculum mapping software as the vehicle
  • Don't ask teachers to "integrate technology"; ask them to have students "replace" what they are doing with technology-based methods
  • Start with assessment practices; later move to content and skills; that is, ask teachers to require students to use new technologies to demonstrate mastery of content and skills they learn

Upgrading Assessment Types: A Model for Short-Term Revision
  • Upgrading each curriculum requirement (content, skills, assessment) calls for a different approach
  • Assessment type is the actual form of the product or performance selected to demonstrate student learning, what a student produces to show knowledge and insight into content, skills, and proficiencies
  • Steps to replacing current assessment practices with technology-based assessment practices
    • Step 1: Develop a pool of assessment replacements -- Ask teachers to brainstorm, research, and list types of digital products and performances professionals produce
    • Step 2: Teachers, working with IT members, identify existing types of software, hardware, and Internet-based capabilities in their school, district, or regional service center -- Provide professional development on the use of available technologies and challenge teachers to commit to becoming comfortable with and using at least one new technology per semester. Differentiate professional development to provide precise support to all staff members
    • Step 3: Replace a dated assessment with a modern one -- Challenge teachers to do this for at least one assessment per semester
    • Step 4: Share the assessment upgrades formally with colleagues and students -- Both groups can be a font of ideas for curriculum planning; share electronically and in formal planning sessions -- include both the original map and the "new and improved" map
    • Step 5: Insert ongoing sessions for skill and assessment upgrades into the school calendar -- replace traditional staff development days with regular curriculum upgrade meeting dates

Partnership for 21st Century Skills: Going Deeper
General skills identified by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills include:
  • creativity
  • innovation
  • critical thinking
  • problem-solving
  • communication
  • collaboration

These are the same skills Plato advocated; what has changed over time is that our knowledge base has grown, and the skills for communicating and sharing what students have learned have changed. Additionally, business, political, and cultural institutions have become partners with schools in emphasizing the importance of these proficiencies. Educators must work only with these skills in a general way and do not focus them, it is difficult for students to translate them to real world practice. Therefore, educators must embed these skills into discrete classroom applications connected to assessment and content. However, the process for embedding them into assessment practices is very different than the process for embedding them into content.